2GL – Second Generation Languages (Basic, Fortran, Cobol, C, etc.)

AC – Alternating current

AGP – Accelerated Graphics Port

ALU – Arithmetic logic unit

ANSI – American National Standards Institute

ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASPI – Advanced SCSI Programming Interface


BBS – Bulletin board system

BIOS – Basic input/output system

BPS (bps) – Bits per second


CAM – Common Access Method

CCITT – Comit’e Consultatif Telegraphique et Telephonique

CD-ROM – Compact disc read-only memory

CGA – Color Graphics Adapter

CHS – Cylinder head sector

CISC – Complex instruction set semiconductor

CMOS – Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor

COM port – Serial communication port

CPU – Central processing unit

CRT – Cathode-ray tube


DC – Direct current

DDE – Dynamic Data Exchange

DIMM – Dual inline memory module

DIPP – Dual inline pin package

DLL – Dynamic link library

DMA – Direct memory access

DOS – Disk operating system

Dpi – Dots per inch

DPMI – MS-DOS Protected Mode Interface

DPMS – Display Power Management Signaling

DRAM – Dynamic random access memory

DTE – Data Terminal Equipment

DVD – Digital video disc


EDB – External data bus

EDO – Extended data out

EGA – Enhanced Graphics Adapter

EIDE – Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics

EISA – Extended Industry Standard Architecture

EMI – Electromagnetic interference

EMS – Expanded Memory Specification

ESD – Electrostatic discharge

ESDI – Enhanced Small Device Interface

ETX – End-of-text


FAT – File allocation table

FPM – Fast-page mode

FTP – File Transfer Protocol


GB – Gigabyte

GBPS (bps) – Giga bits per second

GDI – Graphical Device Interface

GPF – General Protection Fault

GUI – Graphical user interface


HMA – High memory area

HRR – Horizontal refresh rate

HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol


I/O – Input/output

IDE – Integrated Drive electronics or Integrated Device Electronics

IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IOR – Input/output red wire

IOW – Input/output write wire

IP – Internet Protocol

IPX/SPX – Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequence Packet Exchange

IRQ – Interrupt request

ISA – Industry Standard Architecture

ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network

ISO – International Organization for Standardization (often incorrectly identified as International Standardization Organization)

ISP – Internet service provider

ITUT – International Telecommunication Union—Telecommunication Standardization Sector


J++ – Microsoft’s java programming language

JCL – Job Control Language (mainframe programming language)

JIT – Just in time (compiler/translator that only runs code when needed)

JNI – Java native interface

JPEG – Joint Photographic Experts Group


KB – Kilobyte

KBPS (bps) – Kilobytes per second


LAN – Local area network

LBA – Logical Block Addressing

LIM – Lotus/Intel/Microsoft

LPT – Line printer


MB – Megabyte

MCA – Micro Channel Architecture

MCC – Memory controller chip

MDA – Monochrome Display Adapter

MDRAM – Multibank DRAM

MFM – Modified frequency modulation

MHz – Megahertz

MOS – Metal-Oxide semiconductor

MSD – Microsoft Diagnostics

MTBF – Mean time between failures


NDIS – Network Driver Interface Specification

NetBIOS/ NETBEUI – Networked Basic Input/output System/NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface

NIC – Network interface card

NTSC – National Television Standards Committee


OLE – Object linking and embedding

OAA – Open Agent Architecture

OADB – Open Architecture Data Base

ObjectPAL – Object oriented Program Application Language

OCR – Optical Character Recognition

ODI – Open Datalink Interface

OEM – Original Equipment Manufacture

OLE – Object Linking and Embedding

OS – Operating System

OSI – Open Systems Interconnection


PC – Personal Computer

PCI – Peripheral Component Interconnect

PDI – Post DMA-IRQ card

PDL – Page-description language

PGA – Pin grid array or Professional Graphics Adapter

PIO – Programmed Input/output

PLCC – Plastic leadless chip carrier

PM – Preventive maintenance

POST – Power-on self test

POSTS – Plain Old Telephone Service

PPP – Point-to-Point Protocol

PPTP – Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

PQFP – Plastic Quad Flat Pack


QBE – Query by example

QDOS – Quick and Dirty Operating System

QEMM – Quarterdeck Extended Memory Manager

QIC – Quarter Inch Cartridge

QoS – Quality of Service


RAID – Redundant array of independent disks

RAM – Random access memory

RISC – Reduced Instruction Set Computing

RLL – Run-length limited

ROM – Read only memory


SCSI – Small Computer System Interface

SDRAM – Synchronous dynamic random access memory

SEO – Search Engine Optimization

SGRAM – Synchronous Graphics RAM

SIMM – Single inline memory module

SIPP – Single inline pin package

SMM – System Management Mode

SPA – Software Publishers Association

SRAM – Static random access memory


TB – Terabyte

TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TSR – Terminate-and-stay-resident program


UART – Universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter

UMB – Upper memory block

UPS – Uninterruptible power supply

USB – Universal serial bus


VESA – Video Electronics Standards Association

VGA – Video Graphics Adapter

VLB – VESA local bus

VOM – Volt ohm meter

VPN – Virtual private network

VRR – Vertical refresh rate




WAN – Wide area network

WRAM – Window random access memory

XCOPY – eXtended Copy (DOS external copy command)

XML – eXtensible Markup Language

XMS – Extended memory specification

XNS – Xerox Network System

XMS – Extended memory specification

ZIF – Zero insertion force